DatatypesSummary: In this tutorial, you will learn various MySQL data types to use them effectively in database table design.

Database table contains multiple columns with specific data types such as numeric or string. MySQL provides you many more specific data types than just “numeric” or “string”. Each data type in MySQL can be determined by the following characteristics:

  • What kind of value it can represent.
  • The space values take up and whether the values are fixed-length or variable-length.
  • The values of a data type can be indexed.
  • How MySQL compare values of that data types.

Numeric Data Types

You can find all SQL standard numeric types in MySQL including exact number data type and approximate numeric data types including integer, fixed-point and floating point. In addition, MySQL also supports BIT data type for storing bit field values. Numeric types can be signed or unsigned except BIT type. The following table shows you the summary of numeric types in MySQL:

Numeric Types Description
TINYINT A very small integer
SMALLINT A small integer
MEDIUMINT A medium-sized integer
INT A standard integer
BIGINT A large integer
DECIMAL A fixed-point number
FLOAT A single-precision floating-point number
DOUBLE A double-precision floating-point number
BIT A bit field

String Data Types

In MySQL, string can hold anything from plain text to binary data such as images and files. String can be compared and searched based on pattern matching by using LIKE clause or regular expression. The table below shows you the string data types in MySQL:

String Types Description
CHAR A fixed-length non-binary (character) string
VARCHAR A variable-length non-binary string
BINARY A fixed-length binary string
VARBINARY A variable-length binary string
TINYBLOB A very small BLOB (binary large object)
BLOB A small BLOB
MEDIUMBLOB A medium-sized BLOB
LONGBLOB A large BLOB
TINYTEXT A very small non-binary string
TEXT A small non-binary string
MEDIUMTEXT A medium-sized non-binary string
LONGTEXT A large non-binary string
ENUM An enumeration; each column value may be assigned one enumeration member
SET A set; each column value may be assigned zero or more set members

Date and Time Data Types

MySQL provides types for date and time and combination of date and time. In addition, MySQL also provide timestamp data type for tracking last change on a record. If you just want to store the year without date and month, you can use YEAR data type. Here is the table which showing MySQL date and type data types:

Date and Time Types Description
DATE A date value in ‘CCYY-MM-DD’ format
TIME A time value in ‘hh:mm:ss’ format
DATETIME A date and time value in ‘CCYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss’ format
TIMESTAMP A timestamp value in ‘CCYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss’ format
YEAR A year value in CCYY or YY format

Spatial Data Types

MySQL support many spatial data types as below table which contains various kind of geometrical and geographical values.

Spatial Data Types Description
GEOMETRY A spatial value of any type
POINT A point (a pair of X Y coordinates)
LINESTRING A curve (one or more POINT values)
POLYGON A polygon
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION A collection of GEOMETRY values
MULTILINESTRING A collection of LINESTRING values
MULTIPOINT A collection of POINT values
MULTIPOLYGON A collection of POLYGON values

 

From http://www.mysqltutorial.org/